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泰纽小讲堂当前位置:最新活动 >泰纽小讲堂

磁共振的“诺贝尔”之路

发布时间:2019-07

诸葛计划 WENZHANGZHUANZIQIXIEZHIJIA。

CONG40NIANDAICHU,CIGONGZHENDE“NUOBEIERJIANGZHUANYEHU”SHUXINGJIUKAISHIZHUJIANZHANLU,BIJIAOGONGRENDESHUOFASHIZIMEIGUOKEXUEJIARabiFAMINGLEYANJIUQITAIYUANZIHECIXINGDEGONGZHENFANGFAQI,GONGYOU5WEI(ZU)KEXUEJIAYINCIGONGZHENXIANGGUANDEJISHUHUODENUOBEIERJIANG,DANZAIBIZHEKANLAI,ZAIRabiZHIQIAN,HAIYOULIANGWEIKEXUEWEICIGONGZHENDEDANSHENGZUOCHULEBUKEMOMIEDEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN。

诸葛计划 SHUOQIZHEIGEHUATI,JIUBUDEBUTIJI“NEIGENANREN”,CHUANSHUOZHONGDE“ANHEIKEJIZHANGMENREN”——NIGULA·TESILA(Nikola · Tesla),TESILAYISHENGCHUANQI,YONGYOU700DUOXIANGFAMING,JUJUELE11CINUOBEIERJIANG,TAZAI1882NIANFAMINGLEKENICICHANG(YOUCHENGXUANZHUANCICHANG),ZHEIGEFAMINGSHIRENLEIKAISHIZHENDUIDIANCICHANGSHEJIJIYINGYONGDEJICHU,CIGONGZHENCHENGXIANGYESHIZAIZHEIGEJICHUSHANGBEIKAIFACHULAI,CICHANGQIANGDUYEYINCIYITADEMINGZIMINGMING。

诸葛计划 LINGYIWEIBIXUTIJIDE,SHILIANGZIWULIXUEKAISHANBIZU,GEBENHAGENXUEPAICHUANGSHIREN——NIERSI · HENGLIKE · DAIWEI · BOER(DANMAIWEN:Niels · Henrik · David · Bohr),TAQUEDINGLEYUANZIHEDEGUANGPUHEYUANZIHENENGLIANGYUEQIANDEJIBENLILUN,WEIWEILAIJINXINGQINGYUANZICHENGXIANGDAXIALELILUNJICHU。BOERYEYINFAXIANLEYUANZILILUN,HUODELE1922NIANDENUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG,SUOYICONGHONGGUANJIAODULAIKAN,ZHEICAISHICIGONGZHENDEDIYIGENUOBEIERJIANGXIANG。


ZHENGRUQIANWENTIJI,MEIGUOKEXUEJIAYIXIDUO · AISAKE · LABI(Isidor · lsaac · Rabi)YINFAMINGLEYANJIUQITAIYUANZIHECIXINGDEGONGZHENFANGFA,HUODELE1944NIANDENUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG,TAYEYINCIBEIYUWEICIGONGZHENCHENGXIANGDELILUNDIANJIREN。

诸葛计划 

诸葛计划 LABIYOUNIANLAIDAOMEIGUO(YEYOUZILIAOCHENGLABIZIMEIGUOCHUSHENG)。CENGZAIZHOUYOUOUZHOUSHIYUXUDUOZHUOYUEDEWULIXUEJIAYIQITAOLUNYANJIU,BAOKUOBOERSUI、SUOMOFEI、PAOLIYANG、HAISENBAOH9HESITEENDENG。SITEEN(AOTUO · SITEEN Otto · Stern,DEYIMEIGUOHEWULIXUEJIA、ZHUMINGSHIYANWULIXUEJIA,TAFAZHANLEHEWULIYANJIUZHONGDEFENZISHUFANGFABINGFAXIANLEZHIZICIJU,HUODELE1943NIANDENUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG)DEGONGZUOJILABIJIWEISHENKEDEYINGXIANG。TAFANHUIMEIGUOHOUKAISHIZIJIDUTEDEFENZISHUYANJIUGONGZUO。

 1930NIAN,LABIZHENGSHIFAXIANZAICICHANGZHONGDEYUANZIHEHUIYANCICHANGFANGXIANGCHENGZHENGXIANGHUOFANXIANGYOUXUPINGXINGPAILIE,ERSHIJIAWUXIANDIANBOZHIHOU,YUANZIHEDEZIXUANFANGXIANGFASHENGFANZHUAN。ZHEITONGSHIYESHIRENLEIDUIYUANZIHE、CICHANGJIWAIJIASHEPINCHANGXIANGHUZUOYONGDEZUIZAORENSHI。ZI1933NIANQI,TACHENGGONGGAIJINFENZISHUDEYANJIUFANGFA,CONGERNENGGOUYONGGONGZHENFAJIWEIJINGQUEDICELIANGYUANZIHEFENZIDECIXING。TAYEYINFAMINGLEYANJIUQITAIYUANZIHECIXINGDEGONGZHENFANGFA,HUO1944NIANNUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG。

1952NIAN,RUISHIWULIXUEJIAFEILIKESI · BULUOHE(Felix · Bloch)HEMEIGUOWULIXUEJIAAIDEHUA · MIERSI · POSAIER(Edward · Mills · Purcell)GONGTONGFENXIANGLENEIYINIANDENUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG,TAMENFENBIEYONGGANYINGFAHEXISHOUFAGEZIDULIDIFAXIANHONGGUANHECIGONGZHENXIANXIANG,BINGFAMINGLEKEXINGDENENGGOUJINXINGCIGONGZHENDESHEBEI(CISHITAMENFAMINGDEHECIGONGZHENCELIANGSHEBEIZHUYAOYONGYUGONGYECEDINGWUZHIHANLIANG,BINGFEIYIYONG),CHEDIBALABIDEHECIGONGZHENDELILUNFUZHUSHIJIAN。

1946NIAN,POSAIERHETAZAIHAFODAXUEDETONGSHICHENGGONGDILIYONG“HECIGONGZHEN”( NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) LAILIANGDUMOUYIPINLVDEDIANCIFUSHEBEIFANGZHIZAIQIANGCICHANGZHONGDEYUANZIHEXISHOUDECHENGDU。POSAIERRENWEI,QINGYUANZIZHONGDEZHIZIHEDIANZI,YOUYUYOUZIXUAN,QIXINGWEIJIUXIANGCITIE。ZAIXISHOUHUOFASHEYIDINGDENENGLIANGSHI,ZHEILIANGGEXIAOCITIZHINENGXIANGMOUYIQUEDINGDEFANGXIANGBIANHUA。WEILECELIANGZHEIXIENENGLIANGDEZHUANYI,POSAIERJIANGYUANZIZHIYUGAOPINXIANQUANDEZHONGXIN,ZAIJIANGZHEIYIXIANQUANZHIYUYIGECITIEDEQIANGCICHANGZHONG,BINGTONGGUOWUXIANDIANBODEZUOYONGGAIBIANQIANGCICHANGZHONGZHENGQIPAILIEDEWEIXIAOCITIFANGXIANG,TONGGUOJILUYUNXUYUANZIXISHOUNENGLIANGDEWUXIANDIANBODEPINLVLAIXUNZHAOSHIYUANZIHEZHONGXINPAILIESUOXUDENENGLIANG,YINCIZHUNQUEDECHUHEDECIJU。

TONGYANGZAI1946NIAN,BULUOHESHEXIANG,ZAIGONGZHENTIAOJIANXIA,YUANZIHEDEZONGCIJUYUJIAOBIANCICHANGCHENGYIYOUXIANDEJIAODUBINGRAOHENGDINGCICHANGZUOJINDONG,TABAGUANCHADAODEXINHAOKANZUOSHIGANYINGDIANDONGSHI。RUCIYILAI,YUANZIHEJIUCHENGLE“WEIXINGWUXIANDIANFABAOJI”,ERBULUOHESHOUDAOLETAFASHEDEXINHAO。TONGGUOGUANCHASHIBOQIPINGMUSHANGDETIAOWENFANGXIANG,BULUOHENENGGOUZHUNQUEDEZHIHEDEXUANZHUANFANGXIANG,JINERBIANKETUISUANCHUHEDECIJU。ZHEISHIRENLEISHOUGEGAOJINGDUCELIANGHECIJUDEFANGFA,QISHUXUEGONGSHIBEICHENGWEI“BULUOHEFANGCHENG”。

SHIJIANLAIDAO1991NIAN,RUISHIKEXUEJIALICHADE · ENSITE(Richard · R. Ernst)PINGJIEZAINMRBOPUFANGFA、FULIYEBIANHUAN、ERWEIPUJISHUDENGLINGYUDETUCHUGONGXIAN,ZHANHUOLEGAINIANDENUOBEIERHUAXUEJIANG。

核磁共振能得到化学家的青睐,源于一种叫“化学位移”(chemical shift)的现象。产生这种现象的原因,是因为围绕原子核旋转的电子改变了原子核周围的磁场强度,因而使原子核的共振频率发生了位移。于是,通过检测原子核的共振频率,就可以推算出其所处的电子就是化学环境,核磁共振波谱学便应运而生。

诸葛计划 BOPUCHENGXIANGDUIYUCIGONGZHENRENTICHENGXIANGDEGUANJIANJISHUZHIYI,ZHEIXIANGJISHUKEYIBANGZHURENMENGENGHAODEQUFENRENTINEIDEWUZHI。SUIRANZAOZAI1950NIANEERWEN · HAEN(Erwin · Hahn)JIUFAXIANLESHUANGMAICHONGXIACIGONGZHENZIXUANHUIBOXIANXIANG,DANZHIDAO1968NIAN,ENSITETUANDUICAIZHENZHENGZUODAOGAILIANGJIFAMAICHONGXULIEHEFENXISUANFA。

ENSITEDEXIANGFASHIYU1966NIAN,ZHEIYINIANTAYUTONGSHIHEZUOFAXIAN,YONGDUANCUDEQIANGMAICHONGQUDAIHECIGONGZHENPUGUANYONGDEHUANMANSAOMIAOWUXIANDIANBO,NENGXIANZHUDITIGAOHECIGONGZHENJISHUDELINGMINDU。TADEFAXIANSHIGAIJISHUNENGYONGYUFENXIDALIANGGENGDUOZHONGLEIDEHEHESHULIANGJIAOSHAODEWUZHI。BOPUCHENGXIANGDECHUXIANDADATIGAOXINHAODEQILINGMINDUYIJICHENGXIANGSUDU,CIGONGZHENJISHUZHONGYUZICIZHUBUZOUXIANGCHENGSHU。

LINGWAI,ENSITEHAIFAMINGLEERWEIHECIGONGZHENJISHU,ZHEISHIYIZHONGYIGAOFENBIANLV,"ERWEI"DIYANJIUDAFENZIDEJISHU。GAIJISHUKEQUEDINGYOUJIHEWUJIHUAHEWU,YIJIDANBAIZHIDENGSHENGWUDAFENZIDESANWEIJIEGOU,YANJIUSHENGWUFENZIYUQITAWUZHI,RUJINSHULIZI、SHUIHEYAOWUDENGZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONG,JIANDINGHUAXUEWUZHONG,YANJIUHUAXUEFANYINGSULV。XIANDAIDECHENGXIANGJISHUDUOSHIZAIFULIYEKONGJIANCAIJISHUJU,RANHOUTONGGUOERWEIFULIYEBIANHUANJINXINGTUXIANGZHONGJIAN。

HUAZHONGDIAN:NIUMAIDECIGONGZHENJISHUCHUANCHENGYUENSITELAOSHINI!

RUISHIHECIGONGZHENBOPUXUEJIAKUERTE · WEITELIXI(Kurt · Wüthrich)RANGBOPUCHENGXIANGDEYINGYONGYOULEGENGJIASHENYUANDEYINSHEN,TAFAMINGLE“LIYONGHECIGONGZHENJISHUCEDINGRONGYEZHONGSHENGWUDAFENZISANWEIJIEGOUDEFANGFA”,JILIYONGDUOWEINMRJISHUZAICEDINGRONGYEZHONGDANBAIZHIJIEGOUDESANWEIGOUXIANGFANGMIANDEKAICHUANGXINGYANJIU,ERHUO2002NIANNUOBEIERHUAXUEJIANG。TONGHUOCIJIANGDEHAIYOUMEIGUOKEXUEJIAYUEHAN·FENEN(John Bennett Fenn)、RIBENKEXUEJIATIANZHONGGENGYI(たなかこういち)。

诸葛计划 RUJINHECIGONGZHENBOPUXUEYIJINGBEIGUANGFANDIYINGYONGYUFENXIHUAXUEYUJIEGOUHUAXUEDEYANJIUZHONG,ZAIGUANYUDANBAIZHIJIEGOUDEYANJIUSHANG,KAISHIHECHUANTONGDEXGUANGJINGTIYANSHEDEFANGFAPINGFENQIUSE。SUIRANHECIGONGZHENDEFANGFAZAIFENBIANLVSHANGSHANGBUJIXGUANGJINGTIYANSHE,DANYINWEIHECIGONGZHENNENGZHIJIEDUIRONGYEZHONGDEDANBAIZHIJINXINGFENXIERBUXUYAOSHENGCHENGJINGTI,SUOYITAZAIYANJIUDANBAIZHISANWEIJIEGOUDEXINGCHENGYIJIDANBAIZHIZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONGSHANG,YOUQIDUDAOZHICHU。2002NIAN,NUOBEIERHUAXUEJIANGDEYIBANBANJILELINGYIGEZAIYONGHECIGONGZHENBOPUXUEYANJIUSHENGWUDAFENZIJIEGOUFANGMIANYOUJIECHUGONGZUODERUISHIHUAXUEJIAKUERTE · WEITELIXI,YEXUSHIYINWEIZHEICISHIHELINGWAILIANGGEZUOZHIPUYIDEKEXUEJIAPINGFEN,HUOZHESHIDEJIANGDUOCICHANSHENGLESHENMEIPILAO,ZHEIYICIZAIYIXUEJIEBINGMEIYOUXIANQITAIDADEBOLAN。

诸葛计划

MEIGUOKEXUEJIABAOLUO·LAOTEBUER(Paul · Lauterbur)YU1973NIANFAMINGZAIJINGCICHANGZHONGSHIYONGTIDUCHANG,ZUOYONGSHINENGGOUHUODECIGONGZHENXINHAODEWEIZHI,CONGERKEYIDEDAOWUTIDEERWEITUXIANG。BEIYUWEI“CIGONGZHENCHUANGSHIREN”DEYINGGUOKEXUEJIABIDE · MANSIFEIERDE(Peter · Mansfield)JUESHIZAICISHIDENGCHANG,TAJINYIBUFAZHANLESHIYONGTIDUCHANGDEFANGFA,ZHICHUCIGONGZHENXINHAOKEYIYONGSHUXUEFANGFAJINGQUEMIAOSHU,CONGERSHICIGONGZHENCHENGXIANGJISHUCHENGWEIKENENG,TAFAZHANDEKUAISUCHENGXIANGFANGFAWEIYIXUECIGONGZHENCHENGXIANGLINCHUANGZHENDUANDAXIALEJICHU。ERRENYINCIHUODELE2003NIANNUOBEIERYIXUEJIANG。

2003NIANDENUOBEIERYIXUEJIANGDEPINGXUANSHIFENJUYOUXIJUSECAI,XIJUXINGYUANZI1969NIANDEYIGEDONGTIAN,MANSIFEIERDE、LAOTEBUERHEYIWEIMINGJIAOLEIMENGDE · DAMADIAN(Raymond · Damadian)DEKEXUEJIAZAINIUYUEDEYIGEJIUBAHEJIULIAOTIAN,JUDANGSHIRENDAMADIANMIAOSHU,TATICHULESHIYONGTIDUCHANGBIANMAKONGJIANWEIZHIDESHEXIANG,RANHOULINGWAILIANGWEIJILEYIXIEBUCHONGYIJIAN(ZHUYAOSHIJIEJUECICHANGBUJUNYUNDEFANGFA),TAMENDETAOLUNNEIRONGBEIJILUZAILEYIGEWANBAOLUYANHESHANG。

诸葛计划

诸葛计划 ZHEICIJUHUIYIHOU,SANGERENZOUSHANGLEBUTONGDELU,DAMADIANMASHANGKAIFALERENTICHENGXIANGDECIGONGZHENCHANPIN,BINGZAI1971NIANJINXINGLESAOMIAO,BINGFAXIANLELIANGEZHONGLIUDEBUTONGCIGONGZHENXINHAO,XIANGGUANYANJIUFABIAOZAIScienceSHANG,DANSHIHENKUAIDAMADIANZOUSHANGLESHANGYEDAOLU,CHENGLILEFonarGONGSIKAISHILECIGONGZHENSHANGYEYINGYONGDEYANJIUHEKAIFA。LAOTEBUERHEMANSIFEIERDEZEZAI1974NIANZUOCHULESHOUZHANGDONGWUCIGONGZHENTUXIANG,BINGJIANGLUNWENFABIAOZAILENatureSHANG,BINGJIANGXIANGGUANSUANFADENGGONGBUCHULAI。

诸葛计划 RUJINCIGONGZHENCHENGXIANG(MRI) WEIYIXUELINGYUDAILAILEGEMINGXINGDEBIANHUA,TONGGUOZHEIZHONGJISHUKEYIZHENDUANYIQIANWUFAZHENDUANDEJIBING,TEBIESHINAOBUHEJISUIDEBINGBIAN,ERQIEKEYIZHUNQUEDINGWEISHOUSHUBUWEI,YOUQISHINAOSHOUSHUDEJINGQUEDINGWEI,HAIKEYIZHUNQUEGENZONGHUANZHETINEIAIZHENGBINGBIANDEBIANHUAN。TAYICHENGWEIDANGJINSHEHUIZUIWEIZHONGYAO、QIEZUIQIANGDADEZHENDUANGONGJUZHIYI,YIZHIYUXUDUOKEXUEJIASHENZHIYONGYISHENGDESHIJIANLAIYANJIUMR,CONGERZAOFURENLEI,WOMENYINGGAIYICHONGJINGDEMUGUANGYONGYUANMIANHUAITAMEN。

  

诸葛计划 KANWANLECIGONGZHENDENUOBEIERJIANGZHILU,YOUMEIYOUXINGQUXIANGYAOQULEJIEYIXIAZHEIMENQIANYANDEJISHU,XIAMIANDAGEGUANGGAO

诸葛计划

NIUMAICHUANGXINJIAOYU,ZHUANYETIGONGJIYUCIGONGZHENDEYANJIUXINGXUEXIJIEJUEFANGAN,WEIQINGSHAONIANZAIK12JIEDUANJIUNENGJIECHULEJIEZHEIMENQIANYANDEKEYANJISHUTIGONGPINGTAI。

RUGUONIYEYOUXINGQULEJIECIGONGZHEN,GANJINJIARUWOMENNIUMAIDAJIATINGBA,YEXUXIAYIGEYINWEICIGONGZHENHUODENUOBEIERJIANGDEJIUSHINI!

 

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